(5.18) |

Although these methods offer good numerical accuracy, other criteria have to be considered for the choice of the algorithm. In our approach the friction is related to the quantum Monte Carlo noise, and so, in order to simulate low temperate phases, it can happen that we are forced to use a large friction matrix. Due to this, an integration algorithm that allows to work accurately with a large friction is required. In the limit of large friction, or equivalently the eq. 5.4 reduces to the simple Brownian dynamics. In this case the BBK scheme becomes unconditionally unstable (94), and this fact automatically excludes this algorithm. Instead the other two schemes reduce respectively to the second-order explicit Adams formula and to the Euler-Maruyama method (see Ref. (93)). In this thesis we have decided to use the Impulse Integrator proposed by Skell and Izaguirre (93) that achieves a good accuracy (see Appendix E) and it is simple to implement. Moreover in order to integrate the Langevin dynamics 5.4 we have generalized this algorithm to a non-diagonal friction tensor. So we rewrite the equation 5.4 in the simpler form:

where is the friction tensor and . The forces are evaluated with QMC, contains therefore the noise of the QMC evaluation of and a possible additional external generated noise. The friction tensor is assumed to be determined without noise but can explicitly depend on the atomic positions.

(5.20) |

Defining the vectors we obtain:

(5.21) |

Now the equation is in the usual diagonal form with the new forces . We assume that the friction matrix is slowly varying compared to the forces and so the usual integral scheme LI(93) is used for the variable . Finally the transformation is applied to come back to the original variables. The final integration formula is:

Then we can write the final formula to obtain velocities:

(5.23) |